Transport communications of the Republic of Uzbekistan
It is known that Uzbekistan was well-known since ancient times, as the state disposed on the Great silk way, the bridging West and the East. For today this ancient way continues to exist in a new kind, linking the people. Now national economy and renewal update, forming of qualitatively new structures, complex development of regions it is linked to improvement of transport-communication system.
From first years of independence of Uzbekistan there was necessity of improvement of transport and communication systems for the solution of the problems which have remained from a totalitarian mode. These are problems of the railroad communications leading in the Surkhan-Darya area and Republic Karakalpakstan through territory of Turkmenia, elimination of it, building and renovation of the motor roads answering to the world standards, improvement of aviation structure. For the solution of the above-stated problems strategic directions of reforming of transport system have been determined, and in country there has been begun activity on creation of complex national transport system. The basis for development of all directions of branch - of railroad communications, automobile and air transportation has been included. There were tasks in view for raise of competitiveness of automobile and railway roads.
To increase the Republic of Uzbekistan's role in the Central Asia, advancing various areas, economic relations with the next states the national program for 1995-2010 has been developed. Within the limits of this program since 1996 there is begun renovation of a line "Tashkent-Andizhan-Osh", more than 100 which kilometres are on mountain sites, in areas "Kamchik" and "Rezak" there is begun building of tunnels. Various activities on a line "Termez-Tashkent-Bishkek-Alma-ata" and "Samarkand-Bukhara-Ashhabat-Turkmenbashi", our republic passing through territory are conducted. Building 340 kilometre sites of the highway "Kungrat-Bejnov", bundling Republic Uzbekistan with the Russian Federation through Kazakhstan is finished.
With a view of continuation of civil work the program received in 2011-2015 on development of building of a transport and communicative infrastructure gave the chance to development of production, transport, an engineering infrastructure in regions and as a whole on country. According to this program in 2012 building and renovation about 500 kilometres of four-part motor roads have been finished.
It is known that the Central Asia is considered an integral part of world transport-communicative system. In this region from Uzbekistan the big contribution to update and opening of new international roads is introduced. Strategic directions for forming of complete railway junctions in country have been scheduled. In this direction in 1994-2001 rail road construction of "Navoi-Uchkuduk-Nukus" by extent almost in 700 kilometres has been finished. As a result of it in the first years of a railroad operation in Republic Karakalpakistan and the Khorezm area consumer goods in a considerable quantity began to be delivered.
With a view of the further enhancement of railway junctions in country the railroad communications "Guzar-Bajsun-Kumkurgan" have been constructed. On August, 24th, 2007 the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan Islam Karimov at solemn ceremony of opening of a rail line "Tashguzar-Bajsun-Kumkurgan" marked: «In the heart of desert, among long-term mountains working day and night, the railroad communications of 223 kilometres are raised and handed in short terms, in total for 33 months of accepting in operation, anticipating terms for two years. It undoubtedly a great occasion in the history of our country».
Important part of these achievements is that the Uzbek people once again showed the power and on that that it is capable. It can be seen on an example of new 6 stations Tashkurgan, Dehkanabad, Okrabat, Darband, Bajsun and 9 platforms and the stops constructed at the altitude of 1800 metres above sea level among mountain district, in summer heat, a winter icy cold of railroad communications.
That this project is constituted at level of requirements of time shows availability at all stations of the entities ensuring a traffic security, the schools placed in operation, medical institutions, are brought a water-supply system and gas supply. In rail road construction of "Tashguzar-Bajsun-Kumkurgan" 43 rail bridges and overbridges have been constructed, other difficult engineering constructions are created. 9 bridges are constructed 1500 metres above sea level at the altitude that was not watched earlier in practice in Uzbekistan.
Building of this line and commissioning had the big role in republic development. This road became an artery, given the chance to create the unified railway system bridging southern regions Kashkadarya and Surhandarya with other areas. This road increased a capability for an exit to Indian ocean, ports southern and South East Asia through the Transafghan corridor, to increase export capabilities and to expand transit through our country.
As a result of starting of the given rail line it has been created 2,5 thousand new work places for freight and a passenger traffic, for control of rail haulings and safety on ways. More than 4 thousand people got extra work places at the created enterprises and service stations, especially in a small business and in private business.
In region there was a new capability for assimilation of underground natural resources. Social and economic life considerably changed in the Surkhandarya and Kashkadarya areas, the welfare of the population improved. The distance freight and a passenger traffic was shrank to 170 kilometres, and time to 7 hours. As a result transportation of local freights and transit volume was considerably increased. From 5 million tons of the transported freights last year, 4 million tons fell on transit cargoes.
In 2013 under the direction of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan there was begun one more huge project of the electrified railroad communications of "Angren-Pap", extent in 125 kilometres. Its end is planned by 2016. In the future the railroad communications bridges region of Fergana valley to other areas of country, and also increases transit potential of country, linking Europe and China. In days of independence the great attention is given to railroad electrification . For the last period electrified tracks of "Havas-Bekabad" and "Havas-Dzhizak", is planned to finish before term electrification of ways of "Marakand-Karshi". High speed electric trains Tashkent-Samarkand-Bukhara started to ply. There was a capability to cut consumptions on 20 % and to increase in 1,3 times speed passenger and freight traffic. The first high speed train in the Central Asia, bundling the cities of Tashkents and Samarkand «Afrosiyob» has been started.
The civil aviation takes a special place in integration of our country with the international community, at creation of effective two-way cooperation with many countries of the world. In the first years of independence strategic directions for civil aviation development have been scheduled. As our President marked: «Considering huge capabilities of aircraft for an exit on the world market and despite difficulties of a transition period, we gave a priority to development of this sector».
Along with renewal of park of aircrafts according to time requirement, activities on radical renovation of the airports and reform of a control system of air traffic are conducted. In Uzbekistan rather for a short time lapse the base on the basis of international standards and high technologies on preparing of highly qualified pilots and operation personnel has been created. Airplanes NAC «Uzbekistan airways» began to make trips more than in 40 airports of various countries. Radical changes in the field of aircraft affected economy reinforcing, raise of reputation of our Republic on the world scene. Carrying out of deeply thought over, long-term strategy for aircraft development became the factor that the national airline took a worthy place in sphere of the international air transportation and maintenance service. The international structures of aircraft were awarded several times for security of air transportation, their qualitative carrying out, servicing by aircraft technicians with usage of the newest technology, for preparing of qualified personnel.
For years of independence of airline has been equipped by modern airplanes. The government of Uzbekistan helped to gain such modern airplanes, as "Boeing 757", "Boing-764", «А-310», «RS-85». The airline «Uzbekistan airways» in a year makes 75 thousand transit trips. And also acting as a part of airline unique in the Central Asia the centre on maintenance service of aeronautical engineering of last generation renders services to 320 foreign airplanes.
11 airports were modernized under requirements of the international standard (in the cities of Tashkents, Nukus, Samarkand, Bukhara, Urgench, Termez, Karshi, Namangan, Andizhan, Fergana and Navoi). The airport of Tashkent is considered the airport terminal in the Central Asia. The airports of Bukhara, Samarkand and Urgench also own the status of the international airport.
Acting in the republic international intermodal logistic centre "Navoi" and logistic centre "Angren" have the big capabilities. It is necessary to mark that in the territory of the states CIS international intermodal logistic centre "Navoi" unique and is engaged in a stuffing, unloading of the goods, delivering them and accommodation in warehouses for short terms. Equipped with modern aeronautical devices international intermodal logistic centre, despite weather conditions, became capable to receive various kinds of air liners. In 2011 through this logistic centre were supplied more than 50 thousand tons of freight in various countries.
In the conclusion it is fashionable to say that despite financial difficulties, a difficult economic situation in Uzbekistan from first years of independence on reform of transport system huge means have been outlined.
As a whole, for years of independence for development of transport and communication system the big activity of strategic development has been made. In the republic the independence of transport is ensured and the national system bundling all regions of republic among themselves is created. The effective transport system created in country serves as the factor for development of foreign economic relations and integration with other countries.